mesopotamian gods

The Epic of Irra text was enormously popular in Babylon. Marduk was one of the most popular and enduring gods of Mesopotamia and was adopted by the Assyrians as son of their supreme god Assur. Nergal is best known for insulting Namtar, Ereshkigal's representative at the feast of the gods, and having to make amends to her, resulting in their love affair and his eventual move to the underworld to live with her. She was also known as Irkalla. ZU - The Akkadian version of Anzu/Imdugud, the storm bird who steals The Tablets of Destiny from Enlil. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. "The Mesopotamian Pantheon." About human destiny all sources agree. The Sumerian gods often had human characteristics in that they were sometimes good and sometimes bad. Enlil sent the god of death Namtarto to cause a plague to diminish their numbers, but Attrahsis had human beings concentrate all worship and offerings on Namtar and the people were saved. See IRRA. He was one of the many consorts of Inanna/Ishtar. All eleven of Tiamat's creatures were defeated by Marduk who preserved images of them in the watery remains of Abzu to commemorate his victory. At the onset of the following Akkadian period (2350–2200 BCE), Sargon the Great united ancient Mesopotamia under his capital at Akkad, with the city-states now subject to that leadership. GARRA - The Babylonian god of fire, especially noted for cleansing or purifying fire. Last modified February 25, 2011. MAGILUM BOAT - Also known as `The Boat of the West', the Magilum Boat carried the souls of the dead to the underworld, sinking into the west over the horizon. APKALLU GRIFFIN - The Babylonian version of the Abgal. LAHAR - The Sumerian goddess of cattle. Her name means `Great Lady'. NINGAL - A Sumerian goddess of fertility associated with the sun, mother of Utu/Shamash, the sun itself, and wife/consort of Nanna, the moon-god. IRRA - Also known as Erra, the Babylonian god of plagues pestilence, death, war, and destruction, associated with Nergal, god of death. Shamash was god of supreme justice and was often invoked for the protection of travelers, merchants, soldiers and sailors. GILGAMESH - The Sumerian hero of The Epic of Gilgamesh who appears as a mortal in the Sumerian King List as King of Uruk but who, in myth, is depicted as a god or, at least, a demi-god. He was worshipped at the conclusion of building projects. Two different notions about human origin seem to have been current in ancient Mesopotamian religions. See ANSHAR. Mark, Joshua J. SEE GISHIDA. She is associated with the underworld and transformation. Sin was associated with the fertility of women and cattle. In The Epic of Gilgamesh she tries to seduce King Gilgamesh, is repulsed by him as he lists her many faults as a fair-weather lover, and calls down the Bull of Heaven to punish the king. DAGON - Also known as Dagan, he was the Babylonian god of grain and fertility who was especially popular in the mid-Euphrates region of Mesopotamia where he also controlled the weather. Kusag is the High Priest among the gods and officiates at their rites. GUGALANNA - The Sumerian Bull of Heaven and first husband to the goddess Ereshkigal. Mark, J. J. She is often depicted riding on a lion and referred to as `The Queen of Heaven'. The Akkadian tradition, as represented by the “Myth of Atrahasis,” had Enki advise that a god—presumably a rebel—be killed and that the birth goddess Nintur mix his flesh and blood with clay. Enki suggested that the leader of the rebellious gods (Kingu) should be killed and humankind created from his flesh and blood mixed with clay to perform the duties shunned by the gods. Inanna’s ill-fated young husband was the herder god Dumuzi (Akkadian: Tammuz). Those stories were written down by city administrators whose jobs involved the upkeep of the religion, along with the upkeep of commerce and trade. Mesopotamia was an ancient civilization positioned between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River. KABTA - The Sumerian god of pickaxes, construction and bricks, brother of Mushdamma (god of foundations and buildings) and one of the many sons of Ninhursag. He is depicted as a man standing with a crescent moon. Also one of the sons of the primordial gods Apsu and Tiamat, consort of Kishar. GIBIL - The Assyrian god who presided as judge over gods and men, known as the Governor of the Gods. Father of all the other gods, evil spirits, and demons, typically depicted in a headdress with horns, Antu, Antum, or Ki-ist—consort of Anu in Akkadian myth. The demons attacked human beings by causing all kinds of diseases and were, as a rule, viewed as wind and storm beings. Her name is translated as `Cow of The Wild Enclosure' or, alternately, `Great Lady'. The Atrahasis story relates that the eṭemmu (ghost) of the slain god was left in human flesh and thus became part of human beings. He was later absorbed into the god Marduk during the reign of Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE). He stole the Tablets of Destiny for use as a breast plate in battle. (2011, February 25). Gilgamesh ignores her advice and she directs him on the path to Utnapishtim. SEBITTI - According to Babylonian sources, the Sebitti were seven minor warrior gods, sometimes associated with the Anunnaki of the underworld, who followed the demon Irra into battle. LUGALBANDA - The third king of the city of Uruk, husband of the goddess Ninsun and the father of Gilgamesh. NANNA- (also known as Nanna-Suen, Nannar, Sin) - The Sumerian god of the full moon and wisdom, father of Inanna in some stories and father, with Ningal, of Utu/Shamash, the sun god. Unlike the rich corpus of ancient Egyptian funerary texts, no such... Mesopotamia (from the Greek, meaning 'between two rivers&rsquo... Elam was a region in the Near East corresponding to the modern-day... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Please support Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation. He is depicted holding a stylus and either riding on or standing beside a Mushhushshu dragon. Urshanabi breaks the eternal laws governing his position as ferryman by taking Gilgamesh to Dilmun and travels back with him to the city of Uruk at the end of the epic. She was said to brew a fresh batch of beer every day from the finest ingredients. Thank you! By Old Babylonian times (about 2000 BCE), the students had inadvertently built up multiple copies of the core text of the myths. Mesopotamian gods and goddesses are known from the literature of the Sumerian people, the oldest written language on our planet.Those stories were written down by city administrators whose jobs involved the upkeep of the religion, along with the upkeep of commerce and trade. SHUTU - The Sumerian god of sickness, personification of the south wind. She created a mighty army with a spearhead of monsters to kill the younger gods. These gods then rise from the underworld to earth and sky in keeping with the motif of the fertility myth of the dying and reviving god. NINGISHZIDA - A Sumerian god of the underworld alternately the son of Ereshkigal and Gugullana or of Anu, the sky god. Ninhursag is also named as the mother of men and gods and is called different things in different myths. GUSHKIN-BANDA - The Babylonian creator of man and gods who was depicted as a craftsman, most often a goldsmith. Many similarities between the much older Mesopotamian flood story and the Biblical tale of Noah in Genesis have been noted. Known to the Sumerians as Ishkur, he is depicted with a lion-headed dragon or a bull and carrying a hammer or lightning bolt. Many of their images are well known today through statues outside of palaces and temples, most notably the Ishtar Gate of Babylon. Best known from the work The Wrath of Erra in which he destroys Babylon for no reason after tricking Marduk into leaving the city. She was also the goddess of birth. He was also known as Ziusudra to the Sumerians and first appears in The Epic of Atrahasis under that name. URSHANABI - The boatman in The Epic of Gilgamesh who ferries Gilgamesh across the waters of death to the land of Dilmun (paradise) where the immortal Utnapishtim lives. His qualities were eventually assumed by Adad. NAMTAR - The Sumerian demon-god of fate concerning death, also known as the Herald of Death, associated with Ereshkigal. DILMUN - In Sumerian mythology, the site of creation, paradise, where Utnapishtim is transported to with his wife after the great flood. He was especially venerated in the region around the City of Ur. See KITTU. Her consort was Amurru, Amorite god of the sky and of nomads. There were three fearsome horned snakes: Musmahhu, Usumgallu and Basmu; the snake-dragon Mushhushshu; Lahmu the hairy super man; Ugallu, the lion-demon; Uridimmu, the lion-man; Girtablullu, the scorpion-man; Umu-Debrutu, terrifying storms; Kulullu, the fish-man (mermen and mermaids) and Kusarikku, the bull-man. ISHKUR - (Also known as Iskur, Adad, Addu) - The Sumerian god of weather and storms, twin brother of Enki in some myths.

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